A market order is an order to buy or sell a security at its current, or market, price.
A limit order allows you to guarantee that, if a trade is possible, you will receive a specified price, called a limit price.
With a stop order, a trade will only be initiated once the price reaches a specified level, or trigger, called a stop price.
A stop limit order authorizes a trade when the stock reaches a stop price, but because you set a limit above or below that stop, it also guarantees that you will not pay more or sell for less than the limit price.
If you place a trailing stop, you place a trade order set at a certain percentage or dollar decimal spread away from the market price.